There has always been a drive to improve light–matter interactions in semiconductor materials to make better optoelectronic devices. Often called photonics, this includes invisible forms of radiation such gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light. Optoelectronic devices are typically electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical. Light–matter interactions and electronic properties of matter convert light into electrical signal or vice versa.
Photonics uses hermetic packages to protect delicate optical, laser and circuitry in infrastructure installed underground or under sea. Such packages support next generation 5G technology to connect the digital world.